Acupuncture May Help Depression



A new study finds acupuncture to be highly effective in treating depression.


 

ACUPUNCTURE MAY HELP DEPRESSION

At least 1 in 10 Americans have been afflicted with major depression at some point in their lives, and some studies suggest that as many as 1 in 5 Americans have experienced significant depression before.  At any given time, an estimated 7 percent of adults in the United States are suffering from major depression.  (For reasons that are not entirely clear, women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with major depression.)  In view its very high incidence, it is not surprising that major depression is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. for people between the ages of 15 and 44.

There are a variety of potentially effective therapies available for depression including, primarily, cognitive therapy (i.e., meeting with a therapist for counseling) and antidepressant medications.  However, in view of the limited coverage made available for cognitive therapy by health insurers, there has been an increasing reliance upon antidepressant medications in the U.S. for many years.  While many of these medications can significantly reduce the signs and symptoms of major depression, they are often associated with significant side effects, and as many as half of all patients with severe chronic depression will fail to respond to most such medications.

A newly published prospective randomized controlled study from England suggests that acupuncture may be as effective as cognitive therapy and antidepressant medications as a treatment for depression.  This study appears in the online journal PLOS Medicine.

In this study, 755 patients with documented chronic major depression were randomized to one of three different treatment groups: acupuncture, cognitive therapy (counseling), and “usual care alone.”  (The latter group, which also included the use of antidepressant medications, served as the “control group” for this clinical study.)  All patient volunteers were subsequently reassessed with validated diagnostic tests throughout the 12-month course of this clinical study.

On average, the patient volunteers who participated in this clinical trial underwent 10 acupuncture sessions and 9 counseling sessions.  Compared to “usual care,” there was a statistically significant decrease in depression-associated symptoms in both the acupuncture and the counseling groups at 3 months and at 6 months after the start of this clinical study (by 12 months, however, the patients in the “usual care” group had improved to a level comparable to the acupuncture and counseling groups).  To summarize, acupuncture and counseling were each found to be highly effective in reducing the severity of depression-associated symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe depression, and both were actually found to be more effective than the “usual care” (including antidepressant medications) received by the control group of patient volunteers at 3 months and at 6 months. 

This small study suggests a potential role for acupuncture in the treatment of major depression, and should stimulate additional research in this, and other, non-pharmacologic therapies for depression, particularly given the minimal risks associated with acupuncture in otherwise healthy patients.  However, if you are already taking antidepressant medications, and you are interested in trying acupuncture as a treatment for depression, please do not stop taking your medications without your doctor’s approval, as doing so could result in a worsening of your depression!

 

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According to recent Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty between September 2001 and December 2011 is more than 12 percent.  A new website, Veterans in Healthcare, seeks to connect veterans with potential employers.  If you are a veteran who works in the healthcare field, or if you are an employer who is looking for physicians, advanced practice professionals, nurses, corpsmen/medics, or other healthcare professionals, then please take a look at Veterans in Healthcare. As a retired veteran of the U.S. Army, I would also like to personally urge you to hire a veteran whenever possible.


Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


 

I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people from around the world who visit this premier global health information website every month.  Over the past 12 months, more than 3 million pages of high-quality medical research findings were served to the worldwide audience of health-conscious readers.  As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.


 


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Depression After Childhood Abuse May Be Linked To A Specific Gene







 

A new study suggests that a variant of a recently discovered gene may double the risk of lifelong depression after childhood abuse.


 

 

CHRONIC DEPRESSION AFTER CHILDHOOD ABUSE MAY BE LINKED TO A NEW GENE

The age-old debate about “nature versus nurture” has become increasingly complicated as we continue to learn more about the impact of individual genes on our risk for various illnesses.  While it has become widely accepted that specific genetic patterns may predispose some of us to a very high risk of certain physical illnesses, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, the potential linkage between specific genes and the risk of mental illness has been less clear.  At the same time, however, it has long been known that some mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, tend to run in families, which suggests that there may be at least some genetic component to these illnesses.

Over the past 5 years, fundamental new research has begun to suggest that certain genes may indeed be associated with an increased risk of specific mental illnesses.  However, most mental health experts believe that having a specific form of a gene linked to mental illness does not, by itself, mean that an affected individual faces a 100 percent risk of developing a mental illness.  Getting back to that “nature versus nurture” debate once again, it appears that having a genetic variant associated with a specific mental health illness probably predisposes an affected person to develop that particular mental health disorder, but does not guarantee that this will happen.  More specifically, an individual person’s experiences and environment during early life (i.e., the “nurture”) appear to have a significant impact on whether or not genes associated with an increased risk of mental illness (i.e., the “nature”) will actually lead to the development of mental illness.

Now, a newly published clinical study provides strong evidence that a specific form of a single gene can significantly increase the likelihood of major depression in adults following physical abuse during childhood, while another variant of this same gene appears to decrease the risk of chronic depression in similarly abused adults.  This intriguing research study appears in the current issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

This new research study was inspired by previous research with laboratory animals that identified a network of neurons in the brain that use chemicals called endocannabinoids to communicate with each other.  (If the word “endocannabinoid” sounds vaguely familiar, it is because these naturally occurring neurotransmitters in the brain also have counterparts in the plant world, most notably in cannabis, or marijuana, plants!)  Previous research has also suggested that the endocannabinoid system in the brain may play an important role in adaptation to stress, including the moderation of our mood following stressful events.

In this new study, two groups of patient-volunteers were included.  The first group consisted of 1,041 young adult female twins in the United States, while the second group consisted of 1,428 Australian adults known to be addicted to heroin. (An additional 506 Australian volunteers without heroin addiction participated in this study as the control group for the heroin-addicted volunteers.)  The presence of depression, and in particular, depression with anhedonia (a term that indicates the inability to enjoy experiences that most of us find pleasurable), was assessed among all of these patient-volunteers.  The absence or presence of a history of physical abuse, by a parent or caregiver, during childhood was also evaluated.  Testing of the gene which codes for the human endocannabinoid receptor in the brain was performed on all of these research volunteers, as well.

The findings of this study were highly significant.  Not surprisingly, the study volunteers who reported having experienced significant childhood physical abuse had a much higher incidence of depression when compared to those volunteers who did not experience physical abuse as children.  Among the volunteers who had experienced significant physical abuse during childhood, a single, specific variant of the endocannabinoid receptor gene appeared to be highly protective against anhedonic depression when compared to volunteers who possessed the more common variant of this gene.  Specifically, only 29 percent of abused volunteers with this less common variant of the endocannabinoid receptor gene experienced anhedonic symptoms, while 57 percent of the previously abused volunteers with the most common form of this same gene were found to have symptoms of anhedonic depression.

The findings of this study strongly suggest that certain naturally occurring variants of specific genes may either increase or decrease the risk of mental illness (and in the case of this clinical study, major depression with anhedonia) following stressful experiences earlier in life.  Not only do this study’s findings suggest a method of screening patients who might be at significantly increased risk for major depression following stressful events in their early lives, but the linkage of a specific gene within the brain’s endocannabinoid system with depression following traumatic childhood experiences may someday allow for a more effective treatment for post-traumatic major depression, using medications targeted at the specific genetic variation that leads to this increased risk of depression following childhood trauma.


At this time, more than 8 percent of Americans are unemployed.  According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, however, the unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty between September 2001 and December 2011 is now more than 12 percent.  A new website, Veterans in Healthcare, seeks to connect veterans with potential employers.  If you are a veteran who works in the healthcare field, or if you are an employer who is looking for physicians, advanced practice professionals, nurses, corpsmen/medics, or other healthcare professionals, then please take a look at Veterans in Healthcare. As a retired veteran of the U.S. Army, I would also like to personally urge you to hire a veteran whenever possible.

 

For a groundbreaking overview of cancer risks, and evidence-based strategies to reduce your risk of developing cancer, order your copy of my bestselling book, “A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race,” from AmazonBarnes & NobleBooks-A-MillionVroman’s Bookstore, and other fine bookstores!

Within one week of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was ranked #6 among all cancer-related books on the Amazon.com “Top 100 Bestseller’s List” for Kindle e-books. Within three months of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was the #1 book on the Amazon.comTop 100 New Book Releases in Cancer” list.




Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


 

Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


 

I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people from around the world who visit this premier global health information website every month.  (More than 1.3 million pages of high-quality medical research findings were served to the worldwide audience of health-conscious people who visited Weekly Health Update in 2011!)  As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.


 











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Clonidine and the Antidepressant Effexor Both Reduce Hot Flashes

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The blood pressure medication clonidine and the antidepressant venlafaxine (Effexor) both reduce hot flashes caused by breast cancer treatment and by menopause.




CLONIDINE AND THE ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFEXOR BOTH REDUCE HOT FLASHES

 

The modern management of breast cancer often includes “hormonal therapy,” in which medications that block the effects of estrogen, or decrease the amount of estrogen manufactured by the body, are used to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.  Despite significantly lowering the risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients with estrogen-sensitive breast tumors, recent clinical research studies have shown that fewer than one-half of all breast cancer patients actually go on to complete the recommended 5-year course of hormonal therapy.  (This very poor level of compliance with a medical therapy proven to lower recurrence and death rates associated with breast cancer is particularly an issue among younger women.)

While there are several reasons why more than half of all breast cancer patients do not complete their recommended course of hormonal therapy, one of the major causes, and especially among younger patients, is that these medications are commonly associated with significant side effects, including the same hot flashes that frequently accompany menopause.

Numerous treatment interventions have been tried in an effort prevent hot flashes associated with breast cancer therapy (as well as hot flashes in postmenopausal women without breast cancer), but very few of these therapies have been shown to have any clinically significant benefit. However, several previous clinical studies have suggested that certain types of antidepressant medications, as well as the blood pressure medication clonidine, may reduce the severity and frequency of hot flashes. Unfortunately, much of the research in this area has been of rather low quality, and so the findings of these lower level studies have not radically changed the way that most physicians have managed their patients’ hot flashes. Now, a newly published prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical research study, which appears in the current issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, strongly suggests that venlafaxine (also known by its trade name, Effexor®), a medication that is part of the new “serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors” (SNRIs) class of antidepressants, and clonidine may both be effective in decreasing the severity and frequency of hot flashes in women with a history of breast cancer.

In this study, 102 women with a history of both breast cancer and severe hot flashes were secretly and randomly assigned to take either venlafaxine (75 mg per day), clonidine (0.1 mg per day), or an identical-appearing placebo (sugar) pill. Following 12 weeks of observation, 80 patients remained in this clinical study. At the end of this 12-week clinical study, both clonidine and venlafaxine were found to significantly decrease the severity and frequency of hot flashes, when compared to placebo pills. Although both medications were clinically effective in reducing hot flashes, and although venlafaxine resulted in a more rapid reduction in hot flashes than clonidine, clonidine was associated with a greater overall improvement in hot flashes, when compared to venlafaxine, after 12 weeks of treatment. (Venlafaxine was also associated with a greater incidence of nausea, constipation, and appetite loss, compared to clonidine.)

The findings of this study add to those of prior studies that have shown a 15 to 25% reduction in the severity and frequency of hot flashes with antidepressants such as venlafaxine, and with clonidine. Moreover, prior studies have shown that these two medications reduce the severity and frequency of hot flashes in women with a history of breast cancer as well as in postmenopausal women without a prior history of breast cancer.

One important limitation of this study is its small size, and its high patient drop-out rate, which resulted in small numbers of patient volunteers in each of the three “arms” of this prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study.  However, the findings of this small clinical research study, nonetheless, are still consistent with those of previously published studies; and taken together, these studies suggest that venlafaxine (and other modern antidepressant medications) and clonidine may be effective in reducing the severity and frequency of hot flashes in both breast cancer patients who are undergoing hormonal therapy for their cancer and in postmenopausal women with menopause-associated hot flashes.


 

For a comprehensive guide to living an evidence-based cancer prevention lifestyle, order your copy of my new book, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race.  For the price of a cheeseburger, fries, and a shake, you can purchase this landmark new book, in both paperback and e-book formats, and begin living an evidence-based cancer prevention lifestyle today!


For a groundbreaking overview of cancer risks, and evidence-based strategies to reduce your risk of developing cancer, order your copy of my new book, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race,” from Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Books-A-Million,Vroman’s Bookstore, and other fine bookstores!

On Thanksgiving Day, 2010, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was ranked #6 among all cancer-related books on the Amazon.com “Top 100 Bestseller’s List” for Kindle e-books! On Christmas Day, 2010, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was the #1 book on the Amazon.comTop 100 New Book Releases in Cancer” list!


Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


For a different perspective on Dr. Wascher, please click on the following YouTube link:

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I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people, from around the world, who visit this premier global health information website every month. (More than 1.2 million health-conscious people visited Weekly Health Update in 2010!) As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.


 



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