Psychiatric Illnesses May Involve Changes in Only Two Genes



A new study shows that changes in only two genes may account for most psychiatric illnesses.


 

PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESSES MAY INVOLVE CHANGES IN ONLY TWO GENES

As most regular readers of Weekly Health Update know, I rarely discuss psychiatric research studies here, as most behavioral studies are based upon lower level research methodologies, and many of these studies also take inadequate safeguards, in my view, to eliminate inherent biases. However, every now and then, a psychiatric study comes along that catches my attention, and merits further discussion.

Currently, psychiatric diagnoses are based upon clinical symptoms that are organized into diagnostic groups contained in the “bible” of Psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or “DSM.” Because specific psychiatric diagnoses are based almost entirely on the subjective observation of signs and symptoms of mental illness, rather than objective test results, there is enormous potential for misdiagnosis. Moreover, many psychiatric diagnoses are associated with overlapping clusters of symptoms, which further increases the likelihood of misdiagnosis (and inappropriate treatment).

A new research study, which appears in the current issue of the journal The Lancet, strongly suggests that several common mental health disorders long thought to be unrelated to each other may, in fact, share a common biological basis, at least in some patients. The striking findings of this novel genetic study may dramatically change the way that psychiatrists diagnose and manage patients with psychiatric illnesses.

In this landmark study, 33,332 patients with psychiatric illnesses and 27,888 healthy control subjects underwent sequencing of their entire complement of DNA (“genome”), looking for genetic variations known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). (These common variations in the individual “letters” of our genetic code are responsible for many of the differences that exist among us, including hair color, eye color, and other variations, or traits, that can be readily observed.) The researchers then used very complex genetic analysis tools to search for SNPs that appeared to be linked, specifically, to the diagnosis of 5 different psychiatric illnesses in this large population of research subjects.

The results of this landmark study go a long way towards explaining the inaccuracies and inconsistencies commonly associated with the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses based upon DSM diagnostic criteria. Another very important result of this study is that it provides a potential explanation for the actual genetic and biological basis for at least some cases of common psychiatric illnesses.

Based upon the enormous amount of genetic information collected in this study, SNPs at four specific genetic sites were found to be strongly associated with the following 5 common psychiatric illnesses: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder (depression), and schizophrenia. What was especially fascinating was the finding that genetic variations at these four sites involved just two genes, both of which are associated with calcium channels that act like microscopic gates that allow calcium to move into or out of cells.

It is difficult to overstate the importance of this study’s findings. For perhaps the first time, there is now genetic and biological data linking the 5 most common major psychiatric illnesses to specific locations in just two genes, which argues against the current clinical view that each of these illnesses are completely unrelated to each other. Indeed, the finding that variations in only two genes may account for these 5 common psychiatric illnesses is hugely significant, as is the finding that these two genes, which are involved in the construction of calcium channels, may play a fundamental role in the development of these seemingly unrelated illnesses.

The findings of this pivotal study will, hopefully, help psychiatrists to move away from the current subjective, and often arbitrary, methods of clinically diagnosing and treating psychiatric illnesses, and move towards making diagnoses based upon objective gene-based (“molecular”) and biological findings. Moreover, reaching a clearer understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying these common psychiatric illnesses may also lead to innovative new treatment options for patients with mental health illnesses.

 

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Dr. Wascher’s latest video:

Dark as Night, Part 1

Dark as Night, Part 1

Dark as Night, Part 1


At this time, more than 8 percent of Americans are unemployed.  According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, however, the unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty between September 2001 and December 2011 is now more than 12 percent.  A new website, Veterans in Healthcare, seeks to connect veterans with potential employers.  If you are a veteran who works in the healthcare field, or if you are an employer who is looking for physicians, advanced practice professionals, nurses, corpsmen/medics, or other healthcare professionals, then please take a look at Veterans in Healthcare. As a retired veteran of the U.S. Army, I would also like to personally urge you to hire a veteran whenever possible.


Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


 

I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people from around the world who visit this premier global health information website every month.  Over the past 12 months, more than 2.6 million pages of high-quality medical research findings were served to the worldwide audience of health-conscious readers.  As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.


 


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The Source of Racial Awareness and Racism in the Human Brain?





 

A new study links a primitive area of the brain to the development of racial awareness, and perhaps racism as well.


 

THE SOURCE OF RACIAL AWARENESS AND RACISM IN THE HUMAN BRAIN?

It has often been observed that young children seem to be oblivious to racial differences, whereas an awareness of racial differences, and negative perceptions towards people from other races, becomes common by adulthood.  Because the prevalence of racism is so high among adults from all racial backgrounds, this striking difference in racial awareness between children and adults has led some experts to speculate whether racial awareness and racism are learned traits or the result of biological factors within the brain (or both).

The amygdala is an almond-shaped paired organ deep within the brain, and it exerts a powerful emotional influence on our experiences and memories.  In particular, the amygdala has been implicated in fear, anger and avoidance responses to threatening or frightening experiences, and electrical stimulation of the amygdala in mammals has been shown to induce aggression and hypersexual behavior.  The amygdala also appears to be intimately involved in the storage and processing of memories associated with emotion-laden events.

As part of the brain’s limbic system, the amygdala plays an important role in attaching a layer of emotional content to both memories and physical stimuli (such as noxious physical or psychological experiences, for example).  Now, a newly published clinical research study suggests that the amygdala may also play a significant role in the development of racial awareness, and negative views towards people of other races, as the brains of children mature during adolescence.  This new research study appears in the current issue of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

In this study, a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, functional MRI imaging, was used to monitor the activity of the amygdala in young volunteers between the ages of 4 and 16 years.  In this study, 32 of these young volunteers viewed photographs of African American and European American faces while undergoing functional MRI imaging, and two very important findings were identified.

First, as most of us parents already know, there was no evidence of any conscious racial awareness, or negative race-based perceptions, among the younger children who participated in this novel study; and specifically, there was no difference in activity levels within the amygdala of these young children when they viewed the photographs of people from varying racial backgrounds.  On the other hand, when teenaged subjects viewed photographs of people of other races, significant, measurable differences in the activity of the amygdala were identified by the functional MRI scan.

Secondly, the older volunteers who had been exposed to greater racial diversity throughout their lives were noted to have a much less intense reaction in the amygdala when viewing photos of people of other races, when compared to the subjects who had experienced more limited diversity in their lives.

Taken together, the findings of this innovative little study suggest that racial awareness develops over time, and first becomes physiologically apparent around the time of adolescence.  Specifically, the amygdala, an area of the brain associated with particularly strong and often negative emotions, appears to be the primary site in the brain associated with the development of racial awareness during adolescence, and perhaps with negative perceptions towards people of other races as well.  Unquestionably, however, the most important finding of this small study was that adolescents with exposure to more racial diversity during childhood appeared to experience significantly less intense activity in the amygdala when they viewed photos of people from other racial groups.  Therefore, the findings of this functional brain imaging study fit very well with countless previous observations that distinct racial awareness is rarely present in young children, and that people who grow up in more racially diverse environments tend to have fewer negative impressions of people from other racial backgrounds as they grow older.  The observation, in this study, that a tiny but powerful area of the brain which exerts so much control over the emotions of fear and aggression also appears to be directly involved in racial awareness, and negative perceptions of people from dissimilar races, is, simultaneously, both fascinating and not very surprising.


A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race is now available in both printed and digital formats from all major bookstores.  Get your copy now, and begin living an evidence-based cancer prevention lifestyle!


Dr. Wascher’s latest video:

Dark as Night, Part 1


Dark as Night, Part 1

Dark as Night, Part 1



At this time, more than 8 percent of Americans are unemployed.  According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, however, the unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty between September 2001 and December 2011 is now more than 12 percent.  A new website, Veterans in Healthcare, seeks to connect veterans with potential employers.  If you are a veteran who works in the healthcare field, or if you are an employer who is looking for physicians, advanced practice professionals, nurses, corpsmen/medics, or other healthcare professionals, then please take a look at Veterans in Healthcare. As a retired veteran of the U.S. Army, I would also like to personally urge you to hire a veteran whenever possible.


For a groundbreaking overview of cancer risks, and evidence-based strategies to reduce your risk of developing cancer, order your copy of my bestselling book, “A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race,” from AmazonBarnes & NobleBooks-A-MillionVroman’s Bookstore, and other fine bookstores!

Within one week of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was ranked #6 among all cancer-related books on the Amazon.com “Top 100 Bestseller’s List” for Kindle e-books. Within three months of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was the #1 book on the Amazon.comTop 100 New Book Releases in Cancer” list.




Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


 

Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


 

I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people from around the world who visit this premier global health information website every month.  Over the past 12 months, 2,058,157 pages of high-quality medical research findings were served to the worldwide audience of health-conscious readers.  As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.



 




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