Speaking Two Languages Improves Brain Function Late in Life



A new study shows that speaking at least two languages improves brain function later in life.


 

 

 

SPEAKING TWO LANGUAGES IMPROVES BRAIN FUNCTION LATE IN LIFE

Although there are an estimated 6,000 distinct languages spoken on the planet, only about 1 in 4 countries officially identify themselves as bilingual or multilingual nations.  However, there are more people in the world who speak at least two languages than there are people who speak only one language.  Therefore, the majority of humankind can be thought of as generally being bilingual or multilingual.

Based upon previously published cognitive studies, being bilingual or multilingual appears to “strengthen” the areas of the brain that are involved in both language processing and other higher cognitive functions.  Indeed, based upon these prior studies, lifelong multilingual people appear to experience a later onset of cognitive decline in life, and a lower incidence of Alzheimer’s disease, compared to monolingual people.  Now, a newly published research study, which appears in the Journal of Neuroscience, provides fascinating new insights into exactly how bilingualism and multilingualism may help to preserve cognitive function in the brain as we age.

In this study, 110 older monolingual and bilingual adults participated in several “task-switching” exercises that test cognitive function.  Using a sophisticated imaging system that measures blood flow within specific areas of the brain (functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI), these monolingual and bilingual study volunteers were put through their paces with various task-switching exercises while their brain function was monitored by fMRI.

Among the monolingual older adults, areas of the brain associated with the processing of information, and with decision-making, were highly activated during task-switching exercises, indicating that these areas of the brain were working very hard to complete the tasks assigned by the researchers.  The bilingual older adults also experienced increased activity in the left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex, but significantly less so than the monolingual study volunteers.  At the same time, the bilingual volunteers consistently outperformed their monolingual fellow volunteers on the task-switching exercises, despite lower levels of activation of these two key areas of the brain.  Thus, just as has been predicted by previous cognitive testing studies, lifelong bilingualism does indeed appear to increase the efficiency of the areas of the brain that are involved in high-level cognitive processing, and also appear to decrease the rate of loss of these cognitive abilities with advancing age, when compared to monolingualism.  In this clinical study, the bilingual older adults were more successful in completing task-switching cognitive exercises than monolingual older adults; and at the same time, the brains of the bilingual adults accomplished this improved cognitive performance with less effort than their monolingual counterparts (based upon fMRI measurements of brain activity).

While there are many potential personal, professional, social and cultural benefits to speaking more than one language, this elegant clinical research study confirms earlier predictions that lifelong bilingualism and multilingualism may help to preserve the cognitive efficiency and function of the higher processing centers of the brain much later in life.  Given at least the perception that the United States lags behind many other countries in the world in the area of foreign language education, the findings of this new study offer yet another reason for schools in the US to ramp up their foreign language programs.  We live in an increasingly competitive, globalized and multilingual world, and preparing our children for a successful future in that world should include early and continuous exposure to foreign language training, in my view.

 

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Dr. Wascher’s latest video:

Dark as Night, Part 1


Dark as Night, Part 1

Dark as Night, Part 1


At this time, more than 8 percent of Americans are unemployed.  According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, however, the unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty between September 2001 and December 2011 is now more than 12 percent.  A new website, Veterans in Healthcare, seeks to connect veterans with potential employers.  If you are a veteran who works in the healthcare field, or if you are an employer who is looking for physicians, advanced practice professionals, nurses, corpsmen/medics, or other healthcare professionals, then please take a look at Veterans in Healthcare. As a retired veteran of the U.S. Army, I would also like to personally urge you to hire a veteran whenever possible.


For a groundbreaking overview of cancer risks, and evidence-based strategies to reduce your risk of developing cancer, order your copy of my bestselling book, “A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race,” from AmazonBarnes & NobleBooks-A-MillionVroman’s Bookstore, and other fine bookstores!

Within one week of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was ranked #6 among all cancer-related books on the Amazon.com “Top 100 Bestseller’s List” for Kindle e-books. Within three months of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was the #1 book on the Amazon.comTop 100 New Book Releases in Cancer” list.




Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


 

Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


 

I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people from around the world who visit this premier global health information website every month.  Over the past 12 months, more than 2.3 million pages of high-quality medical research findings were served to the worldwide audience of health-conscious readers.  As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.


 


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The Source of Racial Awareness and Racism in the Human Brain?





 

A new study links a primitive area of the brain to the development of racial awareness, and perhaps racism as well.


 

THE SOURCE OF RACIAL AWARENESS AND RACISM IN THE HUMAN BRAIN?

It has often been observed that young children seem to be oblivious to racial differences, whereas an awareness of racial differences, and negative perceptions towards people from other races, becomes common by adulthood.  Because the prevalence of racism is so high among adults from all racial backgrounds, this striking difference in racial awareness between children and adults has led some experts to speculate whether racial awareness and racism are learned traits or the result of biological factors within the brain (or both).

The amygdala is an almond-shaped paired organ deep within the brain, and it exerts a powerful emotional influence on our experiences and memories.  In particular, the amygdala has been implicated in fear, anger and avoidance responses to threatening or frightening experiences, and electrical stimulation of the amygdala in mammals has been shown to induce aggression and hypersexual behavior.  The amygdala also appears to be intimately involved in the storage and processing of memories associated with emotion-laden events.

As part of the brain’s limbic system, the amygdala plays an important role in attaching a layer of emotional content to both memories and physical stimuli (such as noxious physical or psychological experiences, for example).  Now, a newly published clinical research study suggests that the amygdala may also play a significant role in the development of racial awareness, and negative views towards people of other races, as the brains of children mature during adolescence.  This new research study appears in the current issue of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

In this study, a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, functional MRI imaging, was used to monitor the activity of the amygdala in young volunteers between the ages of 4 and 16 years.  In this study, 32 of these young volunteers viewed photographs of African American and European American faces while undergoing functional MRI imaging, and two very important findings were identified.

First, as most of us parents already know, there was no evidence of any conscious racial awareness, or negative race-based perceptions, among the younger children who participated in this novel study; and specifically, there was no difference in activity levels within the amygdala of these young children when they viewed the photographs of people from varying racial backgrounds.  On the other hand, when teenaged subjects viewed photographs of people of other races, significant, measurable differences in the activity of the amygdala were identified by the functional MRI scan.

Secondly, the older volunteers who had been exposed to greater racial diversity throughout their lives were noted to have a much less intense reaction in the amygdala when viewing photos of people of other races, when compared to the subjects who had experienced more limited diversity in their lives.

Taken together, the findings of this innovative little study suggest that racial awareness develops over time, and first becomes physiologically apparent around the time of adolescence.  Specifically, the amygdala, an area of the brain associated with particularly strong and often negative emotions, appears to be the primary site in the brain associated with the development of racial awareness during adolescence, and perhaps with negative perceptions towards people of other races as well.  Unquestionably, however, the most important finding of this small study was that adolescents with exposure to more racial diversity during childhood appeared to experience significantly less intense activity in the amygdala when they viewed photos of people from other racial groups.  Therefore, the findings of this functional brain imaging study fit very well with countless previous observations that distinct racial awareness is rarely present in young children, and that people who grow up in more racially diverse environments tend to have fewer negative impressions of people from other racial backgrounds as they grow older.  The observation, in this study, that a tiny but powerful area of the brain which exerts so much control over the emotions of fear and aggression also appears to be directly involved in racial awareness, and negative perceptions of people from dissimilar races, is, simultaneously, both fascinating and not very surprising.


A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race is now available in both printed and digital formats from all major bookstores.  Get your copy now, and begin living an evidence-based cancer prevention lifestyle!


Dr. Wascher’s latest video:

Dark as Night, Part 1


Dark as Night, Part 1

Dark as Night, Part 1



At this time, more than 8 percent of Americans are unemployed.  According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, however, the unemployment rate for veterans who served on active duty between September 2001 and December 2011 is now more than 12 percent.  A new website, Veterans in Healthcare, seeks to connect veterans with potential employers.  If you are a veteran who works in the healthcare field, or if you are an employer who is looking for physicians, advanced practice professionals, nurses, corpsmen/medics, or other healthcare professionals, then please take a look at Veterans in Healthcare. As a retired veteran of the U.S. Army, I would also like to personally urge you to hire a veteran whenever possible.


For a groundbreaking overview of cancer risks, and evidence-based strategies to reduce your risk of developing cancer, order your copy of my bestselling book, “A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race,” from AmazonBarnes & NobleBooks-A-MillionVroman’s Bookstore, and other fine bookstores!

Within one week of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was ranked #6 among all cancer-related books on the Amazon.com “Top 100 Bestseller’s List” for Kindle e-books. Within three months of publication, A Cancer Prevention Guide for the Human Race was the #1 book on the Amazon.comTop 100 New Book Releases in Cancer” list.




Disclaimer:  As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity


 

Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, professor of surgery, cancer researcher, oncology consultant, and a widely published author


 

I and the staff of Weekly Health Update would again like to take this opportunity to thank the more than 100,000 health-conscious people from around the world who visit this premier global health information website every month.  Over the past 12 months, 2,058,157 pages of high-quality medical research findings were served to the worldwide audience of health-conscious readers.  As always, we enjoy receiving your stimulating feedback and questions, and I will continue to try and personally answer as many of your inquiries as I possibly can.



 




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